Property rights exist nationally and must accordingly be filed and granted or registered nationally. Although national differences in patent, trademark and design law exist, it is not very efficient to run through the grant or registration process for a IP rights family in each country in parallel.
Treaties standardise the grant process in part or fully, with regard to the formal examination, the search of the prior art or substantive examination. If so, and as far as standar-dised by a central authority acts for all contracting states.
These regional (or, like the PCT, worldwide) systems are configured differently for each type of IP right and embrace different contracting states. Standardisation is thereby achie-ved to varying extents. If such systems are used, overall an appreciable cost saving is achieved for an IP rights portfolio embracing several member states.